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Organocatalyzed Heterocyclic Transformations In Green Media: A Review

[ Vol. 8 , Issue. 1 ]

Author(s):

Neslihan Demirbas* and Ahmet Demirbas   Pages 27 - 71 ( 45 )

Abstract:


Background: Since the discovery of metal-free catalysts or organocatalysts about twenty years ago, a number of small molecules with different structures have been used to accelerate organic transformations. With the development of environmental awareness, to obtain highly efficient scaffolds, scientists have directed their studies towards synthetic methodologies that minimize or preferably eliminate the formation of waste, avoid toxic solvents and reagents and use renewable starting materials as far as possible.

Methods: In this connection, the organocatalytic reactions providing efficiency and selectivity for most of the transformations have become an endless topic in organic chemistry since several advantages from both practical and environmental standpoints. Organocatalysts contributing to the transformation of reactants into products with the least possible waste production, have been serving the concept of green chemistry.

Results and Conclusion: Organocatalysts have been classified based on their binding capacity to the substrate with covalent or noncovalent interactions involving hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interaction. Diverse types of small organic compounds including proline and its derivatives, phase-transfer catalysts, (thio)urease, phosphoric acids, sulfones, N-oxides, guanidines, cinchona derivatives, aminoindanol, and amino acids have been utilized as hydrogen bonding organocatalysts in different chemical transformations.

Keywords:

Organocatalyst, multicomponent, microwave, ultrasound, bifunctional catalyst, nanocatalyst, ionic liquids, heterogeneous catalyst, dual-activation.

Affiliation:

Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Chemistry, 61080 Trabzon, Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Chemistry, 61080 Trabzon



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